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September 1, 2014

3 Guidelines For Fish Feeding

Some practical guidelines for feeding Catfish are the following:

1. Feed the fish at the same time everyday and in the same part of the pond. Fish will get used to this and they will come near the surface of the water. This also makes it easier to see if the fish are eating and growing well. Feeding should be done in the late morning or early afternoon when dissolved oxygen levels are high. Fish will have enough time to recover from the high oxygen-demanding feeding activity before nightfall.

2. Do not over feed the fish, as too much feed will decay and use up too much oxygen in the pond.

3. Stop feeding the fish for at least one day before breeding, harvesting or transporting them. The stress from these events causes the fish to excrete waste, which makes the water turbid. In general, fry can be starved for 24 hours, fingerlings for 48 hours and adult fish for about 72 hours. This enables the fish to digest the food completely before stressful events.

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7 Ways To Prevent Fish Diseases

Preventing Catfish Diseases

Good nutrition and proper water quality (= plenty of dissolved oxygen) are the most important factors for good fish health. Many of the potential pathogens (organisms which can cause disease) of fish species are normally present in the water waiting to ‘attack’ when environmental conditions become bad. Under such conditions the fish become stressed and their resistance to diseases is lowered.

There are some basic rules to be observed in order to prevent, or control, disease outbreaks:

1. Ponds must have separate water supplies. It is not advisable to supply a pond with water from another pond, since this water may carry diseases and the level of dissolved oxygen may be low. It is therefore wise not to design ponds in series.

2. Fish must be kept in water with optimum conditions at all times: water with plenty of oxygen, with the correct pH and with a low ammonia content.

3. Fish must not get stressed. If you handle the fish, take great care so that you upset them as little as possible. Extreme stress can be the direct cause of fish death. Damage to their skin (rubbing off the scales and the protective slime layer), means pathogens can enter the fish more easily.

4. Great care must be taken that no sick fish are introduced when mixing fish from different ponds, or when introducing new fish into the farm. New fish to the farm site should be kept in a separate pond until it is certain that they do not carry a disease. Only then should they be brought into contact with on-farm fish stocks.

5. Any change in normal behaviour may be a sign of disease. Signs to look for include gasping at the surface for air, rubbing the body or head against the sides of the pond, or ragged fins and sores on the body. Something is wrong when fish stop eating suddenly.

6. You must check the fish often, especially in very hot weather, as dissolved oxygen shortages occur often (in warm water less oxygen can be dissolved than in cold water).

7. Do not get discouraged if you occasionally find a dead fish in the pond. This also happens in nature. Watch out, however, for large numbers of dead fish. If large numbers of fish die, try to find out the cause.

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Fish Health And Diseases

Fish are vulnerable to diseases when environmental conditions, such as water quality and food availability, are poor. Once a disease has entered the fish pond it will be very difficult to eradicate it. This is because infected fish are difficult to pick out and treat separately. Water is a perfect agent for spreading diseases. The diseases from which fish may suffer are many and varied. Sick fish do not grow, so the farmer loses money as harvest is delayed. If fish are near market size when they die from disease, losses are very severe. The cost of treatment can be high and very often the use of medicines can become dangerous, not only for humans but also for other animals and plants.

In the long run, the waste from the medicines will be released into the environment when the pond is drained. It is therefore much better to prevent diseases. Prevention is cheaper than disease treatment and it avoids losses due to poor growth and death.

Fish Diseases
Diseases can be classified in infectious and nutritional ones. Infectious diseases can be carried from one pond to another by the introduction of new fish or by the farmer and his equipment, whereas nutritional diseases are caused by dietary shortages.

There are also diseases caused by pollutants and bad water quality. The fish farmer should focus on the prevention of diseases as the treatment of fish diseases is often difficult, time consuming and expensive.

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August 31, 2014

Submit Fish Farming Articles And Advertise Free!

After over 3 years of bridging the gap for developing and sustaining entrepreneurs, AGRODYNAMIX is offering you a free platform to share interesting topics and advertise your company, products and services. 

Your post or advert must meet the following criteria:

1. Must be a minimum of 300 words
2. Must be original i.e. written by you. Be sure that we will verify.
3. Must include two unique pictures. We do not accept images downloaded off the internet.
4. Advertisement and Articles must be on FISH FARMING.

Good news! You may include your website links, email, phone number and other contact details in the articles/adverts you submit.

Advert and post submitted will published on this blog 48hrs after review. Send your article and adverts (with pictures) to:      catfishnigeria@gmail.com

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August 30, 2014

Correcting Water Acidity, Alkalinity and Hardness In Fish Ponds

Water suitable for fish farming should have a certain degree of acidity, indicated by the water pH-value. This should preferably range between 6.7 and 7.5. Values above or below this range inhibit good fish growth and reproduction. Phytoplankton require a pH of about 7 and zooplankton (tiny animals in the pond water on which the fish feed) a slightly lower pH of 6.5.

Sometimes the pH of the pond water can change quickly. For example, heavy rain may carry acid substances, dissolved from the soil into runoff water, into the pond. In this way, the pond water gets more acid and thus the pH-value decreases. The best way to increase the pH-value of the water again to neutral (about 7) is to add lime to the pond.

Water alkalinity is a measure of the acid-binding capacity of the water (buffering ability), and is the opposite of water acidity. This means that when pond water alkalinity is high, more acid substances are needed to decrease the water pH-value.

Water hardness is the measure of total water-soluble salts. Water that contains many salts is called ‘hard’ and water that contains few salts is called ‘soft’. One method of measuring hardness is to carefully examine the pond dikes. If a white line appears on the dike at the same height of the water level, this means that salts present in the water have dried on the pond dikes. Therefore the pond contains hard water.

Hard water is important for good fish growth. If the water is too soft (i.e. the amount of water soluble salts is low), the farmer can increase the hardness by adding lime to the water. In this manner, water fertility will increase, so natural food production and ultimately fish production in the pond will also increase.

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